John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. Interestingly, these techniques are some of the most common learning strategies used by students. Dunlosky suggests that the interleaved approach may be most useful when it comes to learning that involves problem solving – like, for example, mathematics. In this report, Dunlosky (Kent State University), Rawson (Kent State University), Marsh (Duke University), Nathan (University of Wisconsin–Madison), and Willingham (University of Virginia) review the effectiveness of 10 commonly used learning techniques. Students are probably least likely to use this highly useful tool because their experience with testing is of the high-stakes, formal, summative testing variety, an experience one tends to avoid if possible. (2013) reviewed a wealth of research on the topic of practice testing and found it to be one of the very best learning techniques students can use. Such ineffective strategies include: summarization, highlighting and underlining, and rereading. In 2013, Prof John Dunlosky reviewed dozens of academic papers and rated commonly used learning strategies from the least to the most evidence-based. Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning. Some features of the site may not work correctly. WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN’T 1 (2013): 4–58. Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM ILLUSTRATIONS BY CELIA JOHNSON Mind.ScientificAmerican.com J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. However, multiple research studies have found that many university students are commonly unaware of, and seldom use, effective learning techniques. stream The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. Nd4��o˺*����h�eYl��ˡDӈ�� +��.2�`�y��ٌ��+�{ wc�,t�y�p��M���s�Wǭ�sk�v��'�dw����AS~3F3������d!�=��3��p�m/+̄�qnM˚�0�V�LDRyA"����Ď|,�yб�L� Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology J Dunlosky, KA Rawson, EJ Marsh, MJ Nathan, DT Willingham Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14 (1), 4-58 , 2013 States and colleagues carried out a meta study evaluating ten popular learning techniques (Dunlosky et al., 2013). A Behavioral Perspective on College Teaching, The Challenges of Classroom Strategy Instruction. Improving educational outcomes will require efforts on many fronts, but a central premise of this monograph is that one part of a solution involves helping students to better regulate their learning through the use of effective learning techniques. The learning techniques chosen for the study were limited to those that were deemed easy to use and did not require advanced technology or extensive materials to be prepared by the teacher. In this monograph, the researchers discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which? His research focuses on self-regulated learning . This technique consists of developing internal images that elaborate on the material being studied. BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM. Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. These include mental imagery, or coming up with pictures that help you remember text (which is time-consuming and only works with text that lends itself to … cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. These techniques were rated as low utility … NCER 2007-2004. The selected techniques are relatively easy to use and could be adopted by many students. The report, “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology,” is published in the January 2013 issue of Psychological Science in the Public Interest and is authored by John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson of Kent State University, Elizabeth J. Marsh of Duke University, Mitchell J. Nathan of the University of Wisconsin … Imagery for text 9. 2. Five techniques received a low utility assessment: summarization, highlighting, the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, and rereading. John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. Toward meeting this challenge, we explored the efficacy of 10 learning techniques (listed in Table 1) that students could use to improve their success across a wide variety of content domains. It focuses on study techniques and, if you have not read it, now is the time. Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking: Strategies for Learning from Lectures. Does Dr. Dunlosky plan to recruit a doctoral student for the next incoming class? IES Practice Guide. Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. A Mixed Methods Study on Learning Strategies and Desirable Difficulties With Effective Strategy Users, Implementation of Learning Strategies in the Classroom: A Case Study of Post-Graduate Diploma in Education (Pgde) Students at the University of Botswana, Assessing Learning Strategies with an Educational Video, Technology Enhancing Kindergarten Students' Literacy Skills in Math, Setting Students Up for Success: A Short Interactive Workshop Designed to Increase Effective Study Habits, nexpensive techniques to improve education : Applying cognitive psychology to nhance educational practice. The process gives off oxygen." Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky 1 , Katherine A. Rawson 1 , Elizabeth J. Marsh 2 , Mitchell J. Nathan 3 , and Daniel T. Willingham 4. In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. From the least to the most effective, they are: 10. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? 4 0 obj In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. � Generative Learning: Which Strategies for What Age? Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement. Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important 2. Imagery for text. A straightforward method of using this study strategy is to present students with a prompt to come up with ’why’ questions about the content, which is beneficial for learning (Davey & McBride, 1986). (2013), may just help answer that. My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, … Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan and Daniel T. Willingham Lernstrategien: Warum Druchlesen und Markieren schön, aber sinnlos ist, 4 science-backed ways toward better learning (Hint: drop the highlighter). Both spaced-out learning, or distributed practice, and practice tests were rated as having “high utility” by the authors. Practice testing: self-testing or taking practice tests on to-be-learned material. Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M., & Willingham, D. (2013). 1 The learning techniques we consider here were chosen on the basis of the following criteria. All techniques described below are useful, even “low utility” ones. To find out which learning techniques were most effective, they conducted a meta-analysis of the available research on 10 different common strategies. In order to receive a high utility rating, the technique needed to be useful in a range of conditions, for a range of Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge B Y JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM HOW WE LEARN WHAT WORKS, WHAT John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. 3. But some papers change the way you teach forever, and, for me, none have done that as comprehensively as Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology (Dunlosky et al, 2013). Elaborative interrogation and self-explanation are two additional learning strategies that show a lot of promise. Techniques for which Research Shows Moderate Utility. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge. the teaching and use of effective learning strategies, my col-leagues* and I reviewed the efficacy of 10 learning strategies: 1. Research Interests: My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, and (3) the application of strategies during learning. We have summarised them here. Many students are being left behind by an educational system that some people believe is in crisis. %��������� J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. By Megan Sumeracki. His research focuses on self-regulated learning . John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham, "Improving Students' Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology," Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14, no. 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). Learning techniques Summary of Dunlosky et al (2013) review of revision and learning techniques Learning Techniques.pdf — PDF document, 140 kB (144376 bytes) More than 100 years of research involving hundreds of experiments have shown the effectiveness of students taking practice tests. John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Distributed practice: implementing a schedule of practice that spreads out study activities over time. Imagine a student reading an introductory passage on photosynthesis: "It is a process in which a plant converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar, which is its food. SO"�Z1N��">͊q� �be�9/$o:��������h�vMYL#8��p�.QzQ��NU�23*/KeȖ6�_*C, �ل_o���x����*�3����]���e�gG�����.�'?�OŦ��5�^7���ʮ��O�Bqa~���=[�:h`�[8���Y�5̔w�#`�����2Ȟ�`{q��s�+�@ff���Ty2N'. Dunlosky et al. (2013) reviewed a wealth of research on the topic of practice testing and found it to be one of the very best learning techniques students can use. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? Fortunately, cognitive and educational psychologists have been developing and evaluating easy-to-use learning techniques that could help students…, Applying Cognitive Science to Online Learning, Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice. Dunlosky et al. Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Computer-supported example-based learning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations, Blog posts, news articles and tweet counts and IDs sourced by, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, View 6 excerpts, cites results, background and methods, MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, View 2 excerpts, references background and methods, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our, The Interleaving Method: How to Efficiently Pick Up New Skills Quickly, How to Conquer Test Anxiety and Subdue Exam Panic Attacks. 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). Dunlosky et al. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. x�Zϗ����W(7潘A ~m.3ۓMvg��N;oy9И�����;�_���_�W% ��ݳ�y> ��TU_U}%�E�,�%E��(�EŢ+�G��R|���K����kH�/B�1RN��.���|ߗbY��˒0��V)OER$*�L,�������i������6V7����Om����h*���_ ���+#����_ۇr{Wv�9�e��~�W�b����R���^�q��=I�Τ�B��R1v)����G^,#�ʋ�T$A�e�R4C*~�E��莆��O�ط�џHOf���l����T�8� Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. Here's what they found. Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. Training programs to improve learning in later adulthood: We are now beginning to find out what works well and not so well when it comes to learning. We chose some techniques (e.g., self-testing, distributed practice) because an initial survey of the literature … Currently, in 2020, most of us are engaging in some sort of distance learning, and planning to do so in the near future. on only the highlighted parts (Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2011; Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009). You are currently offline. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. In one study byPressley et al. Interleaved practice. 10. A comprehensive study called “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques” by Dunlosky et al. Table 1: Learning Techniques (Courtesy: John Dunlosky 2013) The traditional techniques such as highlighting, re-reading and summarization have been frequen tly used in past by the The Rest The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground — not useless, but not especially effective either. rated the following three techniques as moderately effective. Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. Despite the popular - ity of such strategies, research in cognitive and educational psychology suggests that they may consume considerable time without leading to durable learning (e.g., Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). Semantic Scholar profile for J. Dunlosky, with 857 highly influential citations and 224 scientific research papers. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge B Y JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM HOW WE LEARN WHAT WORKS, WHAT Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. Most educators have likely used elaborative interrogation without even knowing it. �� �M�t:9����!�+�M����.�a�w.� How and Why Do Students Use Learning Strategies? Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. HOW WE LEARN. Compared to the “highly effective” techniques, these are more difficult to apply in different environments or with different students, and have less evidence to support their role in improving learning. The practice testing referred to here is formative testing, typically done outside of class and for which stude… Interleaving is the strategy of mixing up the order of questions across different … His research focuses on self-regulated learning . %PDF-1.3 Practice Testing, unsurprisingly, involves self-testing or taking practice tests. The authors found that highlighting tended to work better for students who were more adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of a text. Examens : pour bien réviser, testez-vous ! However, they have been rated according to high, medium and low utility according to whether or not they have been shown to improve student performance across many types of materials, learning conditions, student characteristic and … The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. Distributed learning significantly improves performance over massed practice when it comes to problem solving, but interleaved practice requires a learner not only to solve a problem bus also to determine what type of problem it is. Practice Tests, Spaced Practice, and Successive Relearning: Tips for Classroom Use and for Guiding Students’ Learning John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson Kent State University Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? One potential reason for the disconnect between research on the efficacy of learning techniques and their use in educational practice is that because so many techniques are available, it would be challenging for educators to sift through the relevant research to decide which ones show promise of efficacy and could feasibly be implemented by students (Pressley, Goodchild, Fleet, … (1987), students who were asked to explain a fictional man’s actions were nearly two times more likely to correctly recall the man’s actions on a final test than students who were asked … HOW WE LEARN. !d�ѭwD�L�a�����]b`��d�vʭ�]�Ԯ o���70|��>}A��f�ul����@Ƭh{ĩ�ő�2 U�ι�o��~�\�|_�Ȍ1��c�wMլ��X�9��5 ��~X Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. From the least to the most effective, they are: 10. , unsurprisingly, involves self-testing or taking practice tests or concept is.... 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